Radicalisation Influence in Social Media

Miriam Fernandez

Abstract


In an increasingly digital world, identifying signs of online extremism sits at the top of the priority list for counter-extremist agencies. Researchers and governments are investing in the creation of advanced information technologies to identify and counter extremism through intelligent large-scale analysis of online data. However, to the best of our knowledge, these technologies are neither based on, nor do they take advantage of, the existing theories and studies of radicalisation. In this paper we propose a computational approach for detecting and predicting the radicalisation in uence a user is exposed to, grounded on the notion of ’roots of radicalisation’ from social science models. This approach has been applied to analyse and compare the radicalisation level of 112 pro-ISIS vs.112 “general" Twitter users. Our results show the e ectiveness of our proposed algorithms in detecting and predicting radicalisation in uence, ob- taining up to 0.9 F-1 measure for detection and between 0.7 and 0.8 precision for prediction. We have also conducted an in-depth anal- ysis of the social in uence received by the 112 pro-ISIS accounts, and reported on the origin, frequency and topical diversity of this in uence. While this is an initial attempt towards the e ective com- bination of social and computational perspectives, more work is needed to bridge these disciplines, and to build on their strengths to target the problem of online radicalisation


Full Text:

preprint

References


@inproceedings{cano2013,

booktitle = {Int. Joint Conf. Natural Language Processing},

title = {A weakly supervised Bayesian model for violence detection in social media},

author = {Amparo Elizabeth Cano Basave and Yulan He and Kang Liu and Jun Zhao},

address={Nagoya, Japan},

year = {2013}}

@article{agarwal2015applying,

title={Applying social media intelligence for predicting and identifying on-line radicalization and civil unrest oriented threats},

author={Agarwal, Swati and Sureka, Ashish},

journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1511.06858},

year={2015}

}

@inproceedings{agarwal2015using,

title={Using knn and svm based one-class classifier for detecting online radicalization on twitter},

author={Agarwal, Swati and Sureka, Ashish},

booktitle={International Conference on Distributed Computing and Internet Technology},

pages={431--442},

year={2015},

organization={Springer}

}

@inproceedings{ashcroft2015detecting,

title={Detecting jihadist messages on twitter},

author={Ashcroft, Michael and Fisher, Ali and Kaati, Lisa and Omer, Enghin and Prucha, Nico},

booktitle={Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC), 2015 European},

pages={161--164},

year={2015},

organization={IEEE}

}

@article{badawy2018rise,

title={The rise of jihadist propaganda on social networks},

author={Badawy, Adam and Ferrara, Emilio},

journal={Journal of Computational Social Science},

volume={1},

number={2},

pages={453--470},

year={2018},

publisher={Springer}

}

@article{berger2013matters,

title={Who Matters Online: Measuring influence, evaluating content and countering violent extremism in online social networks},

author={Berger, JM and Strathearn, Bill},

journal={International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence},

year={2013}

}

@article{berger2015isis,

title={The ISIS Twitter Census: Defining and describing the population of ISIS supporters on Twitter},

author={Berger, Jonathon M and Morgan, Jonathon},

journal={The Brookings Project on US Relations with the Islamic World},

volume={3},

number={20},

pages={4--1},

year={2015}

}

@inproceedings{bermingham2009combining,

title={Combining social network analysis and sentiment analysis to explore the potential for online radicalisation},

author={Bermingham, Adam and Conway, Maura and McInerney, Lisa and O'Hare, Neil and Smeaton, Alan F},

booktitle={Int. Conf. Advances in Social Network Analysis and Mining (ASONAM'09)},

year={2009}

}

@article{borum2003understanding,

title={Understanding the terrorist mind-set},

author={Borum, Randy},

journal={FBI L. Enforcement Bull.},

volume={72},

pages={7},

year={2003},

publisher={HeinOnline}

}

@article{borum2014psychological,

title={Psychological vulnerabilities and propensities for involvement in violent extremism},

author={Borum, Randy},

journal={Behavioral sciences & the law},

volume={32},

number={3},

pages={286--305},

year={2014},

publisher={Wiley Online Library}

}

@article{borum2016etiology,

title={The Etiology of Radicalization},

author={Borum, Randy},

journal={The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism},

pages={17},

year={2016},

publisher={John Wiley & Sons}

}

@mastersthesis{campos2011temporal,

title={Temporal models in recommender systems: an exploratory study on different evaluation dimensions},

author={Campos Soto, Pedro G and others},

year={2011},

howpublished={url{http://ir.ii.uam.es/reshet/pub/uam11.pdf}}

}

@article{carter2014greenbirds,

title={# Greenbirds: Measuring Importance and Influence in Syrian Foreign Fighter Networks},

author={Carter, Joseph A and Maher, Shiraz and Neumann, Peter R},

year={2014},

publisher={Citeseer}

}

@inproceedings{chatfield2015tweeting,

title={Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks},

author={Chatfield, Akemi Takeoka and Reddick, Christopher G and Brajawidagda, Uuf},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research},

pages={239--249},

year={2015},

organization={ACM}

}

@article{correa2013solutions,

title={Solutions to detect and analyze online radicalization: a survey},

author={Correa, Denzil and Sureka, Ashish},

journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.4916},

year={2013}

}

@article {de2018automatic,

title = {Automatic Detection of Jihadist Online Hate Speech},

author = {De Smedt, Tom and De Pauw, Guy and Van Ostaeyen, Pieter},

log = {arXiv preprint arXiv: 1803.04596},

year = {2018}

}

@article{edwards2013pathways,

title={Pathways to violent extremism in the digital era},

author={Edwards, Charlie and Gribbon, Luke},

journal={The RUSI Journal},

volume={158},

number={5},

pages={40--47},

year={2013},

publisher={Taylor & Francis}

}

@inproceedings{Fernandez2018roots,

author = {Fernandez, Miriam and Asif, Moizzah and Alani, Harith},

title = {Understanding the Roots of Radicalisation on Twitter},

booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science},

series = {WebSci '18},

year = {2018},

isbn = {978-1-4503-5563-6},

location = {Amsterdam, Netherlands},

pages = {1--10},

numpages = {10},

url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3201064.3201082},

doi = {10.1145/3201064.3201082},

acmid = {3201082},

publisher = {ACM},

address = {New York, NY, USA},

keywords = {counter-terrorism, online radicalisation, radicalisation influence}

}

@article{fernandez2018contextual,

title={Contextual Semantics for Radicalisation Detection on Twitter},

author={Fernandez, Miriam and Alani, Harith},

year={2018},

booktitle = {Proceedings of the Social Good Workshop (SW4SG) at the 17th International Semantic Web Conference},

publisher={CEUR}

}

@inproceedings{ferrara2016predicting,

title={Predicting online extremism, content adopters, and interaction reciprocity},

author={Ferrara, Emilio and Wang, Wen-Qiang and Varol, Onur and Flammini, Alessandro and Galstyan, Aram},

booktitle={International conference on social informatics},

pages={22--39},

year={2016},

organization={Springer}

}

@article{ferrara2017contagion,

title={Contagion dynamics of extremist propaganda in social networks},

author={Ferrara, Emilio},

journal={Information Sciences},

volume={418},

pages={1--12},

year={2017},

publisher={Elsevier}

}

@article{hafez2015radicalization,

title={The radicalization puzzle: A theoretical synthesis of empirical approaches to homegrown extremism},

author={Hafez, Mohammed and Mullins, Creighton},

journal={Studies in Conflict & Terrorism},

year={2015},

publisher={Taylor & Francis}

}

@article{king2011radicalization,

title={The radicalization of homegrown jihadists: A review of theoretical models and social psychological evidence},

author={King, Michael and Taylor, Donald M},

journal={Terrorism and Political Violence},

volume={23},

number={4},

pages={602--622},

year={2011},

publisher={Taylor & Francis}

}

@article{klausen2015tweeting,

title={Tweeting the Jihad: Social media networks of Western foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq},

author={Klausen, Jytte},

journal={Studies in Conflict & Terrorism},

volume={38},

number={1},

year={2015},

publisher={Taylor & Francis}

}

@inproceedings{koren2008factorization,

title={Factorization meets the neighborhood: a multifaceted collaborative filtering model},

author={Koren, Yehuda},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining},

pages={426--434},

year={2008},

organization={ACM}

}

@article{kruglanski2014psychology,

title={The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significance quest impacts violent extremism},

author={Kruglanski, Arie W and Gelfand, Michele J and B{'e}langer, Jocelyn J and Sheveland, Anna and Hetiarachchi, Malkanthi and Gunaratna, Rohan},

journal={Political Psychology},

volume={35},

number={S1},

pages={69--93},

year={2014},

publisher={Wiley Online Library}

}

@article{lara2017statistical,

title={Statistical analysis of risk assessment factors and metrics to evaluate radicalisation in Twitter},

author={Lara-Cabrera, Ra{'u}l and Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio and Camacho, David},

journal={Future Generation Computer Systems},

year={2017},

publisher={Elsevier}

}

@article{lygre2011terrorism,

title={Terrorism as a process: A critical review of Moghaddam’s “Staircase to Terrorism”},

author={Lygre, Ragnhild B and Eid, Jarle and Larsson, Gerry and Ranstorp, Magnus},

journal={Scandinavian journal of psychology},

volume={52},

number={6},

pages={609--616},

year={2011},

publisher={Wiley Online Library}

}

@inproceedings{mahmood2012online,

title={Online social networks: The overt and covert communication channels for terrorists and beyond},

author={Mahmood, Shah},

booktitle={Homeland Security (HST), 2012 IEEE Conference on Technologies for},

pages={574--579},

year={2012},

organization={IEEE}

}

@article{mccauley2008mechanisms,

title={Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism},

author={McCauley, Clark and Moskalenko, Sophia},

journal={Terrorism and political violence},

volume={20},

number={3},

year={2008},

publisher={Taylor & Francis}

}

@article{moghaddam2005staircase,

title={The staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration.},

author={Moghaddam, Fathali M},

journal={American Psychologist},

volume={60},

number={2},

pages={161},

year={2005},

publisher={American Psychological Association}

}

@inproceedings{o2014online,

title={Online social media in the Syria conflict: Encompassing the extremes and the in-betweens},

author={O'Callaghan, Derek and Prucha, Nico and Greene, Derek and Conway, Maura and Carthy, Joe and Cunningham, P{'a}draig},

booktitle={Int. Conf. Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM)},

year={2014},

address={Beijing, China}

}

@inproceedings{ponte1998language,

title={A language modeling approach to information retrieval},

author={Ponte, Jay M and Croft, W Bruce},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 21st annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval},

pages={275--281},

year={1998},

organization={ACM}

}

@inproceedings{rowe2016mining,

title={Mining Pro-ISIS Radicalisation Signals from Social Media Users.},

author={Rowe, Matthew and Saif, Hassan},

booktitle={Int. Conf. Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM)},

address={Cologne, Germany},

year={2016}

}

@inproceedings{saif2017semantic,

title={A semantic graph-based approach for radicalisation detection on social media},

author={Saif, Hassan and Dickinson, Thomas and Kastler, Leon and Fernandez, Miriam and Alani, Harith},

booktitle={European Semantic Web Conference},

pages={571--587},

year={2017},

organization={Springer}

}

@article{saif2014stopwords,

title={On stopwords, filtering and data sparsity for sentiment analysis of twitter},

author={Saif, Hassan and Fern{'a}ndez, Miriam and He, Yulan and Alani, Harith},

booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC)},

address={Reykjavik, Iceland},

year={2014}

}

@article{schmid2013radicalisation,

title={Radicalisation, de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation: A conceptual discussion and literature review},

author={Schmid, Alex P},

journal={ICCT Research Paper},

volume={97},

pages={22},

year={2013},

publisher={International Centre for Counter Terrorism The Hague}

}

@article{shi2014collaborative,

title={Collaborative filtering beyond the user-item matrix: A survey of the state of the art and future challenges},

author={Shi, Yue and Larson, Martha and Hanjalic, Alan},

journal={ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},

volume={47},

number={1},

pages={3},

year={2014},

publisher={ACM}

}

@book{silber2007radicalization,

title={Radicalization in the West: The homegrown threat},

author={Silber, Mitchell D and Bhatt, Arvin and Analysts, Senior Intelligence},

year={2007},

publisher={Police Department New York}

}

@article{van2016predicting,

title={Predicting susceptibility to radicalization: An empirical exploration of psychological needs and perceptions of deprivation, injustice, and group threat},

author={van der Veen, Jaap},

year={2016}

}

@article{vergani2015evolution,

title={The evolution of the ISIS’language: a quantitative analysis of the language of the first year of Dabiq magazine},

author={Vergani, Matteo and Bliuc, Ana-Maria},

journal={Sicurezza, Terrorismo e Societ{`a}= Security, Terrorism and Society},

volume={2},

number={2},

pages={7--20},

year={2015}

}

@article{von2013radicalisation,

title={Radicalisation in the digital era: The use of the Internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism},

author={Von Behr, Ines},

year={2013},

publisher={Rand Corporation.url{ https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR453.html.}}

}

@inproceedings{wiktorowicz2004joining,

title={Joining the cause: Al-Muhajiroun and radical Islam},

author={Wiktorowicz, Quintan},

booktitle={The Roots of Islamic Radicalism conference, Yale. Devji, F (2005) Landscapes of the Jihad: militancy, morality and modernity. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd},

year={2004},

organization={Citeseer}

}


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.